AFRICAN PULP: The Spear in Racist Pulp Fiction’s Heart!

comix 13Throughout Africa, storytelling has always been an intrinsic part of society, used to recall historical events, impart wisdom, debate and communicate messages from the divine.

Storytellers – called Djele, Sanusi, Babalawo, Iyanifa, Okomfo and other titles, depending on where, on the continent you go – are revered and are usually also skilled in spiritual and healing practices as well.

Tales of powerful heroes, megalomaniacal villains, sorcerers, witches and fearsome creatures abound in African folklore, thus I was not surprised at my recent discovery – thanks to Paul Bishop, author and mastermind behind the Fight Card brand of Fight Fiction books – that Pulp magazines, created by, and about, African heroes were highly popular across the continent in the 1960s through the 1980s.

Sold under the brand names African Film and Boom, these magazines – called photo comics, or “look books” – were illustrated with stunning photographs instead of drawings, giving them the uniqueness, creative flair and do-it-yourself spirit common throughout Africa.

With heroes like the Tarzanesque Fearless Fang (Boom) and the “African Superman”, Son of Samson, children and adults alike waited eagerly every month for latest edition to hit the newsstands.

Lance SpearmanThe most popular photo comic magazine was The Spear (African Film), which featured Lance Spearman, the super-spy / detective whose coolness James Bond and Derek Flint would envy. The Spear drove a Corvette stingray, sported a panama hat and well-tailored suits with a bow tie and smoked expensive cigars. And in true Pulp fashion, he had a bevy of beautiful women at his beck-and-call.

Lance Spearman pursued the bad guys with zeal, outwitting their conspiracies, kicking much ass with his African martial arts and saving the day…all in one issue!

These popular Pulps – a portfolio of black and white photos, complete with speech balloons, narration boxes and all the “bam-pow” sound effects that a kick and a quick upper cut to the jaw makes in any comic book.

Unlike the popular Pulps of the Western world, however, which were rife with racist tropes of uncivilized, uneducated, spear-chucking cannibals, or damn-near naked noble savages, with objectified, ample body parts, Lance Spearman was sharp, stylish and sophisticated.

Even the jungle stalking Fearless Fang was intelligent, witty, brave and well, cool.

Combining Western references with a distinctly African cultural identity, these amazing African Pulps presented a critique of colonialism and a significant variation in how the genre classically figured normality and otherness.

And they were entertaining as hell!

Published first by publisher Drum Publications in Nigeria in the early 1960s and later also published in Kenya and Ghana the photo comic had a powerful and lasting influence in fostering postcolonial pride and identity.

Its combination of extreme violence, melodrama, romance and glimpses of the glamorous life preceded and influenced the Blaxploitation craze in American cinema in the 1970s and its use of inventive DIY tactics to overcome budget constraints influenced the booming Nollywood film industry.

African PulpOther popular titles included The Stranger, about a two-gun toting, Black Lone Ranger-type hero; the romantic Sadness and Joy; and the serpentine shero, Cobra.

“Ok, you’ve told us about the photo comics, but how, and why, were they created?” You ask? “

 Well, Drum Publications of Nairobi, Kenya – tired of the clichéd racist images of Black people in contrast to the heroic images of white soldiers and superheroes in Western comics – decided to create comic books that would appeal to Black men. They began photographing black men in adventures that were designed to appeal to the Black African population.

Drum would buy stories and then send the scripts to Swaziland, where a photographer would takes pictures of a cast of Black actors. They would then send the photographed strips to London, England, where the magazines were printed. Finally, the photo comic magazines would be distributed in West, East and South Africa.

comix 12The Lance Spearman title was the most popular publication, with circulation figures estimated at 100, 000 in West Africa, 45,000 in East Africa and 20,000 in South Africa. In fact, Lance Spearman had a greater circulation in Kenya than any of the local daily newspapers at that time.

The writers of these look-books were Black Africans, who were paid $65 – equivalent to approximately $508.00 today – for every script they produced.

Expected in the scripts were lots of fistfights and the bad guys always losing in the end.

The readership of these photo comics included men, women, boys and girls from small rural towns to sprawling urban cities; from the barely literate to highly educated professionals.

The man, who played the character of Lance Spearman, was Jore Mkwanazi, originally employed as a “houseboy” in Durban, South Africa, scrubbing the floors of an apartment for $35 a month and as a musician, playing the piano in a nightclub for $1.50 a night, when photographer Stanley N. Bunn discovered him and decided he had the tough, cynical, sophisticated face that was needed for The Spear. In the role of the super-spy, Mkwanazi earned $215 a month.

Here is the original Drum Publications information, found in every issue of their photo comic magazines:

Drum Publications (E.A.) Ltd
P.O Box 43372

Editor: J. Singh

Printed by 
Printing and Packaging Corporation Ltd
P.O Box 30157, 

But the story of photo comic magazines does not stop here.

In fact, it is just beginning.

In the summer of 2014, I will publish my first photo comic book, The Siafu: Revolution.

The Siafu is about escaped prisoner, Jamil Brown, who suffers a virus-induced myostatin deficiency that gives him enhanced strength, speed and endurance. Jamil is hunted by his makers, while gathering others like him to help fight against the corrupt system that made him.

For those of you who don’t know, siafu are army ants that, while small, are powerful and – in large enough numbers – can bring down an elephant.

So, be on the lookout for this amazing new graphic Pulp science fiction novel in a few months.

Get ready for The Siafu.

Get ready for Revolution.



About Balogun

Balogun is the author of the bestselling Afrikan Martial Arts: Discovering the Warrior Within and screenwriter / producer / director of the films, A Single Link, Rite of Passage: Initiation and Rite of Passage: The Dentist of Westminster. He is one of the leading authorities on Steamfunk – a philosophy or style of writing that combines the African and / or African American culture and approach to life with that of the steampunk philosophy and / or steampunk fiction – and writes about it, the craft of writing, Sword & Soul and Steampunk in general, at He is author of eight novels – the Steamfunk bestseller, MOSES: The Chronicles of Harriet Tubman (Books 1 & 2); the Urban Science Fiction saga, Redeemer; the Sword & Soul epic, Once Upon A Time In Afrika; a Fight Fiction, New Pulp novella, Fist of Afrika; the gritty, Urban Superhero series, A Single Link and Wrath of the Siafu; the two-fisted Dieselfunk tale, The Scythe and the “Choose-Your-Own-Destiny”-style Young Adult novel, The Keys. Balogun is also contributing co-editor of two anthologies: Ki: Khanga: The Anthology and Steamfunk. Finally, Balogun is the Director and Fight Choreographer of the Steamfunk feature film, Rite of Passage, which he wrote based on the short story, Rite of Passage, by author Milton Davis and co-author of the award winning screenplay, Ngolo. You can reach him on Facebook at; on Twitter @Baba_Balogun and on Tumblr at

16 responses »

  1. I’m looking forward to The Siafu!

  2. Fujimoto says:

    Photo comics; what a neat idea! Thank you for bringing attention to Drum Publications, and I look forward to The Siafu.

  3. Jiva Fang says:

    I wonder, as I read the phrase “black Lone Ranger-type”, if you had heard, Bro, that evidence points to the fact that the “Lone Ranger” character was most likely based on the exploits of the a Black deputy US marshall / former slave, Bass Reeves?

    Other than that, Thanks for teaching me something new.. looking forward to The Siafu.

    • Balogun says:

      Bass Reeves is actually one of the main characters in our Steamfunk feature film, “Rite of Passage”, Jiva.
      Thanks, for your feedback!

      • Jiva Fang says:

        I never made the name connection, but I haven’t seen more than pics from your shoots.
        I’m still catching up, bear with me 🙂

      • Balogun says:

        That’s fine, Jiva! Very soon, the world will get to experience Bass Reeves come to life – in a BIG way – on the silver screen, through “Rite of Passage.” 😀

    • Christopher D’Cruz says:

      If as is claimed that young budding South African writers wrote the scripts for the Boom and Film photo comics that came out in the latter part of the 1960’s in Africa and were so popular, why were these photo comics suddenly discontinued altogether in merely a brief span of two years and never been reprinted ever? Especially today, when one can see (courtesy of the internet), how so many countless of us fans of The Boom and Film are eagerly wanting to buy the old editions and even hopefully looking forward to the resurrection of these photo comics by new skilled and talented African writers who can re-create these photo comics? I’m certain that there will be a great market for them among the countless of us faithful fans who still exist today not only in Africa but in many other parts of the world like the UK and US, as well!

  4. Wow! Great read and AWESOME find! Always wanted to do something like this… and it is marvelous to see that ‘family’ on the continent have had a successful history with it (Look-Books). Great job on this, sir!

  5. […] think it’s worth mentioning here that Africa, a continent where story telling is an intrinsic part of society, had their own brand of pulp magazines that were popular throughout the 1960’s and […]

  6. airmanchairman says:

    As a pre-teen in the mid-sixties, I looked forward to the comics vendor in our area of Lagos, West Africa, who rode a motorised bicycle called a Solex with a distinctive lawn-mower like sound. Mags like Tiger & Hurricane, Valiant, Beano, Mirabelle & Roxy were later joined by African Film (Lance Spearman) and Boom (Fearless Fang).

    Some of my classmates in secondary school were gifted artists and made their own Afrocentric heroes using cartoon art rather than photography; I honestly expected to see a booming industry by the 70’s, but it never materialised to my disappointment.

    As a commercial pilot in the late 70’s, I also expected to see a fledging aerospace industry in Africa by the 80’s / 90’s, same non-result.

    I now realise the importance of pioneers and independent means of sustenance for those who have the vision and energy to create new trends that swim against the commercial tide of the global giants. And so I say, more grease to your elbow; Africa is replete with wonderful tales of power, mystery, romance and heroism, so may you never lack for storylines and inspiration!

    • Balogun says:

      Thanks, so much!

      I am happy to see great comic book and video game creators now coming out of Africa.

      I will continue to work hard to represent Africa well in all I do!

  7. Barclay T. says:

    Lance Spearman was much cooler than James Bond. We couldn’t wait for Thursdays to come around to grab a copy of the latest episode of the African Film featuring Lance Spearman the crime buster chasing his arch enemy and nemesis Rabon Zollo the head of the crime syndicate.

    • Rabin Zollo, Mayor Royam and Major Rojam were frequent and major players in the Spear drama; Lance Spearmean’s soft spot for El Greco cheroot so, his favourite cigar, is another fond memory!

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