Black People Read

Renowned Author, Neil Gaiman (the novel, American Gods; The Sandman comic book series) shared a fascinating fact. While appearing as  Guest of Honor at China’s largest state approved Science Fiction convention, Neil decided to inquire why Science Fiction, once frowned upon by the Chinese government, was now not only approved of, but encouraged, with China now the world’s largest market for Science Fiction, with the highest circulation of Science Fiction magazines and the largest Science Fiction conventions.

The answer Neil was given is very interesting.

China is the world’s manufacturing powerhouse. But it doesn’t invent or design most of the things it manufactures. China wants to capture the creativity and imagination of the culture that has produced companies like Google and Apple. So Chinese researchers talked to people involved with those and other Fortune 100 companies to see what factors they had in common. The answer?

All of their CEOs, Presidents and Vice Presidents read science fiction.

Black People Read

Artwork by James Ng

The Chinese acted upon this research and today, throughout China, Science Fiction is a thriving and respected genre, read widely; which is very different from the early eighties, when Science Fiction was declared to be “spiritual pollution” and banned by the government. Back then, Science Fiction in China all but disappeared. But it has come back stronger than ever, appealing to a new generation of Chinese who see themselves as part of a world-wide cultural phenomenon, which includes Hip Hop, Fashion, Movies and Science Fiction.

In the past decade, Science Fiction has overtaken fantasy as the popular literary form, even though fantastic fiction is an integral part of the history of Chinese literature.

Science Fiction studies continue at Beijing Normal University, the largest research and editing center of science-fiction theory and criticism in the world. Western authors and scholars visit there often and in the future, this center is expected to be the center of international Science Fiction research.

Science Fiction is an essential influence in the development of top level creative thinkers, especially those dealing with technology. We live in an age of unparalleled technological development, which is creating change throughout society of an unprecedented magnitude. Science Fiction, in all its forms, is a valuable tool for helping train people to creatively work with that change.

Science Fiction does not just show us possible futures, it trains us to anticipate new technology, model how it will impact our lives and exploit that insight.

Black People ReadAside from Nnedi Okorafor’s Zahrah the Windseeker and the Shadow Speaker; Wendy Raven McNair’s novels, Asleep and Awake; Alicia McCalla’s Breaking Free, Tananarive Due’s and Steven Barnes’ Devil’s Wake and Domino Falls and this writer’s own Once Upon A Time In Afrika and Moses: The Chronicles of Harriet Tubman, it is difficult to find Speculative fiction (Science Fiction and Fantasy) with Black protagonists, or even secondary characters, written for young adults by Black authors.

Middle Grade novels are even harder to find, with L.M. Davis’ Interlopers and Milton Davis’ Amber at the fore.

In their 2003 study of middle school genre fiction, Agosto, Hughes-Hassell, and Gilmore-Clough found that of 976 reviews of youth Fantasy novels, only 6 percent featured protagonists or secondary characters of color, and that of the 387 reviews of youth science fiction, only 5 percent featured protagonists or secondary characters of color.

Yet, as more Black authors of adult Science Fiction and Fantasy – like Charles Saunders, Walter Mosley, Keith Gaston, Valjeanne Jeffers, Milton Davis, Cerece Rennie Murphy and Balogun Ojetade (smile) – grow in popularity and fill a much needed void, more Black writers are getting the opportunity to fill that void in youth literature as well.

As the Chinese have come to realize, filling that void is important for several reasons and is a must for people of color, particularly those of African descent.

Black People ReadStudies have shown that, in the general population, Science Fiction and Fantasy has an impact on the teaching of values and critical literacy to young adults. Science Fiction challenges readers to first imagine and then to realize the future of not only the novel they are reading but, also the future of the world in which they live.

Looking at the most visible popular examples of Epic Fantasy – J.R.R. Tolkien, Robert E. Howard and bestselling authors J.K. Rowling, George R.R. Martin and Robert Jordan – a casual observer might assume that big, continent-spanning sagas with magic in them are always set in some imaginary variation on Medieval – and, sometimes, even modern – Britain. The stories include the common tropes – swords, talismans of power, wizards and the occasional dragon, all in a world where Black people rarely exist; and those who do appear are decidedly peripheral and usually work for the bad guys.

That same casual observer might therefore conclude that Epic Fantasy – one of today’s most popular genres of fiction – would hold little interest for Black readers and even less for Black writers. But that casual observer would be wrong.

Young adults of African descent can – and do – relate to the experiences in Science Fiction and Fantasy. Indeed, they crave these experiences and read speculative fiction just as voraciously as young adults of other races. But the lack of self-images in this literature can have a negative effect on the psyche of young readers and can, indeed, contribute to negative behavior. We derive our perceptions of self by what we hear, see, and read and our perception directly affects our actions.

The Process of Action works as follows:

  1. Perception (precedes Thought)
  2. Thought (precedes Impulse)
  3. Impulse (precedes Action)
  4. Action

If the Perception of ourselves is a person who lacks courage, integrity and goodness – because we do not see ourselves possessing heroic qualities in most books – the Thought creeps into our minds that we lack those heroic qualities, so we are – by default – villains. The Thought grows into a strong Impulse to be the villain; and finally, the Action of villainy takes place.

Youth 1However, if – through Fantasy and Science Fiction written with Black characters as the heroes – our youth begin to perceive themselves as heroic…as hard working…as good…they will begin to act in accord with how they perceive themselves.

Above, we mentioned authors who have published books of Science Fiction and Fantasy featuring Black youth as protagonists. An analysis of these books reveals plots that are fun and adventurous; Black protagonists who are gifted, insightful youth surrounded by functional, supportive family units; and themes common to the Science Fiction and Fantasy genres, like courage, integrity, and good versus evil. While race and ethnicity are not ignored in these books, the race or ethnicity of a character does not drive the plot.

Our youth need stories that do not deny race or the historical implications of race, while remaining unhindered by the racism that may be present.

Youth 3On May 5, 2012, in Atlanta, a group of Black authors of speculative fiction – in conjunction with the Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History – came together to host The State of Black Science Fiction 2012 Youth Symposium, an amazing and day-long symposium that spotlighted Science Fiction and Fantasy as a signature intersection of science, history, technology, and humanistic studies. Fun was had by all and the students who participated, who ranged in age from 5-15, all eagerly purchased books to read during their lunch break.

The symposium featured panel discussions, workshops and games that inspired the imagination and challenged minds.

The authors involved were Balogun Ojetade, Milton Davis, Alicia McCalla, L.M. Davis, Wendy Raven McNair and Ed Hall. A performance of an interactive Choose Your Own Adventure story, written by the students was featured and famed author Tananarive Due – the world’s first and most popular Black author of horror and suspense – honored us with an inspiring key-note address.

I mention the symposium because I would like to host another such conference in April or May of this year (2014). I invite my fellow authors – and anyone else who would like to become involved – to join me in creating a special event for our youth; our future.

I invite all African-centered, private and public schools who serve and care about Black youth to participate. Bring your students. Have them write works beforehand to share during the performance portion. Make it a weekend field trip. Let’s give them a day of fun, learning and transformation. Let’s give them all that speculative fiction has given us, or what it would have given us if we saw ourselves in it.

So, there it is: a full day of Black speculative fiction workshops, performances, art, games, contests and vending – all for our youth.

Are you down?



The Black Science Fiction and Fantasy Youth Symposium is set for Saturday, April 26, 2014; from 10:00 am – 5:00 pm.!

Black Science Fiction

About Balogun

Balogun is the author of the bestselling Afrikan Martial Arts: Discovering the Warrior Within and screenwriter / producer / director of the films, A Single Link, Rite of Passage: Initiation and Rite of Passage: The Dentist of Westminster. He is one of the leading authorities on Steamfunk – a philosophy or style of writing that combines the African and / or African American culture and approach to life with that of the steampunk philosophy and / or steampunk fiction – and writes about it, the craft of writing, Sword & Soul and Steampunk in general, at He is author of eight novels – the Steamfunk bestseller, MOSES: The Chronicles of Harriet Tubman (Books 1 & 2); the Urban Science Fiction saga, Redeemer; the Sword & Soul epic, Once Upon A Time In Afrika; a Fight Fiction, New Pulp novella, Fist of Afrika; the gritty, Urban Superhero series, A Single Link and Wrath of the Siafu; the two-fisted Dieselfunk tale, The Scythe and the “Choose-Your-Own-Destiny”-style Young Adult novel, The Keys. Balogun is also contributing co-editor of two anthologies: Ki: Khanga: The Anthology and Steamfunk. Finally, Balogun is the Director and Fight Choreographer of the Steamfunk feature film, Rite of Passage, which he wrote based on the short story, Rite of Passage, by author Milton Davis and co-author of the award winning screenplay, Ngolo. You can reach him on Facebook at; on Twitter @Baba_Balogun and on Tumblr at

17 responses »

  1. Stephanie says:

    Yes! I love this article and definitely want to be involved with the conference for this year.

  2. […] I realized that Oluade is like most Black children – he is driven by a search for the interesting; a desire to twist the mundane and flip it on its head in order to see the ordinary from a different perspective; to explore the boundaries of creativity; and, indeed, to discover or create new boundaries. What these children seek is found within the realms of Science Fiction and Fantasy. […]

  3. Don’t forget Nalo Hopkinson and the late Octavia Butler! The Carl Brandon Society ( might be a useful resource. Good luck!

  4. Anton Marks says:

    Fantastic article and your sentiments are heartfelt and undeniably true.
    I’d love to get involved but I’m in the UK so the sooner you can button down a date so I can make plans to attend, the better it will be for me.
    The connections and inspirations we can all garner from a day such as this would be life changing.
    Make it so.
    Look forward to hearing from you.

    Peace, love and power

  5. Fujimoto says:

    Sounds like it would be a lot of fun to have another conference.

    At least in China there is a tradition of sweeping epic fantasies, and Taiwan and Hong Kong have their own science fiction tales to inspire people. It’s rare in English-speaking territories, but there are a few East Asian-inspired fantasies like Silver Phoenix and Legend of the Five Rings (some of these, like Kylie Chan’s Dark Heavens series, give us white protagonists when they really shouldn’t). I think that really highlights the need for sword and soul, steamfunk, and others, and is a reason I abandoned plans to write purely East Asian-inspired fantasy some time ago.

  6. charlotte says:

    Sounds like a great idea–I hope it works out! I am busily keeping a list over at my blog of books for kids and teens whose protagonists are kids of color – If it would be useful to you, I could easily make a list of the books with black kids.

    And I myself will look for the two Davis’ books you mention to add to my list!

  7. […] wonderful post on the many benefits Black youth can receive from reading science fiction, and the need for more […]

  8. Katie says:

    I’m an Asian American SF/F fan and I have to say that Neil Gaiman’s story is just standard anti-Chinese racism. This plays right into the stereotype of Chinese people – and Asians in general – as mindless, soulless automatons, unable to make original creative or intellectual work, and it’s total BS. There is a thriving culture and history of original Chinese SF/fantasy (see for just one resource), and that wikipedia article also namechecks the first Chinese SF convention, which happened in 1991. I just also want you to consider that his story posits an ENTIRE COUNTRY (with very nearly the world’s foremost economy) that happens somehow not to have imagination and technical ingenuity, a problem that only Western SF/F can solve. That seems unlikely, right? I adore SF/F and I hate to see Gaiman get away with this kind of racist hyperbole.

    For other examples of Neil Gaiman BS, here are a few links. Obvs not all of them are recent but you get the sense that he considers himself rather more aware than he actually is.

    The point of the post is so important, and I don’t want you to think I wrote all this just to play social justice “gotcha.” As a Korean mixed-race girl I didn’t even know enough to want representation for myself. I devoured all kinds of books, gravitating towards SF/F with white female heroines because that was the closest there was to something that represented me. Definitely some more Asian American and Asian SF/F writers these days in the US, but never enough. There’s a lot of stuff written now that deems itself influenced by Asian culture, but a lot of it reads like Orientalist wankery. SF/F by Black writers changed my life. Octavia Butler, Jewelle Gomez, and Samuel Delany have been so important to me just in terms of my development as a human being, so I guess just trying to say that Black writing lifts up other people of color too.

    • Balogun says:

      Thanks, so much, for sharing your insight, Katie! I am glad you found such great authors and it is a testament to their talent, skill and power that they helped in your positive development.


  10. […] I put out the call for Black creators of Speculative works to join me in putting on the 2nd Annual Black Science […]

  11. […] *The Black Science Fiction and Fantasy Youth Symposium will take place on April 26 in Atlanta, Georgia. Learn more about it on Chronicles of Harriet. […]

  12. […] authors, artists and filmmakers who create speculative works for and about Black people – and the Black Science Fiction and Fantasy Youth Symposium was […]

  13. […] Milton and I produced the successful Mahogany Masquerade: An evening of Steamfunk and Film, the Black Science Fiction and Fantasy Youth Symposium and the Black Science Fiction Film Festival, now both annual […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s