RESEARCH, RESEARCH, RESEARCH! Avoiding Cultural Appropriation in Steampunk

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In 2013, at Dragon*Con, I had the pleasure of being a panelist on the Around the World in 80 Minutes: Steampunk Multiculturalism panel, moderated brilliantly by Diana Pho, founding editor of Beyond Victoriana. My esteemed (eSTEAMed?) co-panelists were Cherie Priest, bestselling author of the Clockwork Century Series, which includes the wildly popular Steampunk novel, Boneshaker; Marina Gurland, Kimono historian and collector and Steampunk afficianado; and Kathryn Hinds, Steampunk, Fantasy and YA novelist, poet, editor, author of over fifty nonfiction books for adults and children and teacher of Middle Eastern Dance.

The conversation was powerful, engaging and interactive and had the feel of a bunch of highly intelligent, well-informed, but really cool and down-to-earth- people getting together to discuss – and find solutions to – some serious issues.

The theme of the day? Research!

From the infamous "African Queen photoshoot. The model is 16 year old, blond-haired, blue-eyed North Carolinian, Ondria Hardin.

From the infamous “African Queen photoshoot. The model is 16 year old, blond-haired, blue-eyed North Carolinian, Ondria Hardin.

Eventually, the conversation got around to cultural appropriation – a topic discussed often amongst Steampunks, as it happens often.

This is a deep issue and had to be addressed. I won’t tell you what the other panelists said, as Diana Pho has sworn us to secrecy in that regard – there will be a video of it released soon, as Alan Braden, known amongst Steampunks as Professor Upsidasium, recorded it and awaits the green light from Ms. Pho – however, I will share my take on the matter.

A working definition of “cultural appropriation” for me is the taking of some aspect, artifact or stereotype of a particular culture – usually something we consider cool – and using it as you please without an understanding and / or respect for what you have taken.

If you wear a Yoruba crown because you think it fits your Steampunk persona of Sir Richard Asshat, the Great White Leopard Hunter, but you know nothing of Yoruba culture (in fact, you probably pronounce it yoh-ROO-bah, when it is YOH-roo-BAH) or the fact that wearing a crown when you are not a chief or oba (“king”) is a capital offense in Yorubaland (even wearing a crown above or below your station is an offense), then you have committed cultural appropriation.

Someone said "He really looks British!" I replied "That's because he really IS British." Akin Danny Donaldson, Producer / Actor / Steamfunkateer.

Someone said “He really looks British!” I replied “That’s because he really IS British.” Akin Danny Donaldson, Producer / Actor / Steamfunkateer.

I am a master instructor of Yoruba, Mandinka and Wolof martial arts, an awo – or, initiate (“priest”) – of Ifa, Egbe and Obatala  and War Chief (“Balogun”) in the Yoruba traditional culture. I live as a Yoruba, am well-versed in Yoruba history, sociology, psychology and cosmology and have respect and reverence for the traditional culture and for my teachers. I am also highly knowledgeable of Akan and Fon culture and sociology, thus I would cosplay an Akan, a Yoruba or a Fon.

I would not, however, cosplay as a Zulu. Though I am a man of African descent, Africa is not a country and African people are not homogenous. I know a bit about the Zulu and respect their culture, but I do not have a deep enough understanding of the culture to cosplay as Shaka Zulu’s right hand man, ‘Bandelezi, the Steam-Bearer,’ without committing cultural appropriation.

Am I being overly sensitive? Nope. Turning someone’s cultural identity into a caricature should be avoided, so the issue of cultural appropriation warrants caution and examination and deserves, well, sensitivity.

Everyday experiences of identity reflect people’s creativity in the way they express themselves as individuals. Stereotypes erase (“white-out?”) the personal experiences of identity and replace them with generalizations.



And cultural appropriation is not simply a “little mistake” or a “victimless crime”. The visceral reaction to having an identity that one associates with as an experience, yet disassociates with as a stereotype, is felt in the body and in the mind as an ache; a sickness. As Kristina Bui, a columnist for the Arizona Daily Wildcat says, “It’s a feeling I’ve always struggled to articulate –a discomfort that sort of just sits in the place between your heart and your stomach, quietly nagging.”

Cultural appropriation, at its root, is about power – power to name; power to define; power to appropriate someone’s cultural identity; and power to dictate how painful the resulting stereotype perpetuated by that appropriation should be.

Cosplaying a character from another culture without understanding of that culture and without experiencing any of the daily discriminations faced by that culture is ignorant, at best;  racist, at worst; and an act of privilege.

appro 7However, Steampunk is about changing, or, at least, twisting history right? It is about “how the Age of Steam should have been”, correct? Then it is necessary that we know history; that we understand how the Age of Steam was, so that we can determine how it should have been. If we cosplay a “Steampunk Squaw”, we should research how First Nation women lived during the Age of Steam; we should study First Nation cultures and choose in which we are going to gain historical and sociological expertise; we should research the word “squaw”, understand it is an offensive term to First Nation women and change the name…if you give a damn. If you don’t, you are a racist. Just own up to it and move on.

Am I ruining your plans for the Mahogany Masquerade, Halloween, or AnachroCon?  Well, cultural appropriation and the resultant stereotyping ruins whole groups of people’s fun every day of their lives,

Steampunk Cultural Appropriation“Well, I cosplay as an Egyptian Princess of Icelandic descent because I want to show the absurdities of a blond-haired, blue-eyed Egyptian,” you say. Well, unless your costume includes a billboard that reads “I am cosplaying as an Egyptian Princess of Icelandic descent because I want to show the absurdities of a blond-haired, blue-eyed Egyptian,” strangers will have no clue of your intentions and your costume will be just as hurtful.

The “punk” in Steampunk enjoins us to challenge the status quo. Please, let’s do so and be more thoughtful, knowledgeable and sensitive in our cosplay.

And remember…

Research equals giving a shit; so, do it.

A lot.

About Balogun

Balogun is the author of the bestselling Afrikan Martial Arts: Discovering the Warrior Within and screenwriter / producer / director of the films, A Single Link, Rite of Passage: Initiation and Rite of Passage: The Dentist of Westminster. He is one of the leading authorities on Steamfunk – a philosophy or style of writing that combines the African and / or African American culture and approach to life with that of the steampunk philosophy and / or steampunk fiction – and writes about it, the craft of writing, Sword & Soul and Steampunk in general, at He is author of eight novels – the Steamfunk bestseller, MOSES: The Chronicles of Harriet Tubman (Books 1 & 2); the Urban Science Fiction saga, Redeemer; the Sword & Soul epic, Once Upon A Time In Afrika; a Fight Fiction, New Pulp novella, Fist of Afrika; the gritty, Urban Superhero series, A Single Link and Wrath of the Siafu; the two-fisted Dieselfunk tale, The Scythe and the “Choose-Your-Own-Destiny”-style Young Adult novel, The Keys. Balogun is also contributing co-editor of two anthologies: Ki: Khanga: The Anthology and Steamfunk. Finally, Balogun is the Director and Fight Choreographer of the Steamfunk feature film, Rite of Passage, which he wrote based on the short story, Rite of Passage, by author Milton Davis and co-author of the award winning screenplay, Ngolo. You can reach him on Facebook at; on Twitter @Baba_Balogun and on Tumblr at

11 responses »

  1. Merennulli says:

    I can relate to the visceral reaction of seeing a negative stereotype of your ancestry thrown out as an accepted norm. I’m descended from Scots-Irish immigrants who early anti-Irish newspapers, comics, and eventually Warner Brothers have caricatured as “hillbillies”. I don’t mind seeing a Hatfield or McCoy cosplay, much as I suspect anyone of Egyptian heritage would be ok with a low-accuracy cosplay of an Egyptian King misidentified as a Pharaoh, or any American would be ok with an Asian fem-Lincoln, because these aren’t the stereotypes being promoted, but are prominent individuals and families whose fame is being acknowledged.

    That doesn’t change how hurtful it is when I see a fake-bearded idiot speaking barely intelligible bad imitations of a drunk moonshiner they saw on TV, waving around a bad imitation of a Kentucky long rifle, and claiming to be “from the back woods”. The feeling you describe sounds exactly how I feel when I see this.

    That isn’t to say I would care if you cosplayed an honorable interpretation of my kinfolk, though. I would have no problem with an over-mountain man or an Ozarkan, or even the occasional moonshiner – even a highly inaccurate costume of one by someone who doesn’t even remotely look like one of us, so long as they are respectful and not ridiculous. I’d be pleased if you thought our history was cool enough to imitate – as the “Egyptian princess” example seemed to.

    Research is good, and I don’t want to detract from how positive it can be (I’ve spent almost as long researching my character as I have on the leathercraft, metalwork, wiring, painting and sewing combined), but the key is respect first and foremost. Most people will tolerate a little inaccuracy, but mocking a culture, even inadvertently, is irredeemable.

  2. ilovegepdays says:

    Hey, I have been teaching English in a small Chinese town since September, and I’ve been considering making a new steampunk character using some Chinese clothes (a blouse, farmer’s hat, some ear rings and a hair clip) that I’ve picked up over the last few months (I wouldn’t be pretending to be Chinese, but rather a Western woman who had travelled in China). However, following a quick introduction of cultural appropriation, I’m now not sure if this would be insensitive.

    What are your thoughts?

    I’ll be contacting a few people on this and compare answers and make my mind up from those (whatever the majority, if not all, comments, say). Thanks xx

  3. maggiedot says:

    Very thoughtful post, with lots of food for thought. Thank you for sharing!

  4. Gaby Hernandez says:

    Love this so much! Concise and to the point! Thanks!

  5. Fujimoto says:

    This is one of my favorite Chronicles of Harriet posts yet. An important message that bears repeating, over and over. “Research equals giving a shit; so, do it,” might be one of the greatest pieces of advice ever.

  6. SunnyBunny says:

    interesting read. I have seen more then enough “this is cool so I’ll use it” things.
    Its like the saying goes – everyone wants to be black without the struggle.

  7. […] •Cultural appropriation in steampunk and how to avoid it. […]

  8. […] RESEARCH, RESEARCH, RESEARCH! Avoiding Cultural Appropriation in Steampunk by Balogun Ojetade […]

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